Appendix 1:
Radiocarbon dates from late Pleistocene and early Holocene archaeological sites of Argentina and Chile
Site Level Material dated C-14 date Lab # Reference
Agua de la Cueva 2b charcoal 9210+70
(Standard)
Beta-64539 García et al. 1999
Agua de la Cueva 2b charcoal 9760+160
(Standard)
Beta-61410 García et al. 1999
Agua de la Cueva 2b charcoal 9840+90 Beta-26781 García et al. 1999
Agua de la Cueva 2b charcoal 10240+60
(AMS)
Beta-61408;
CAMS 5811
García et al. 1999
Agua de la Cueva 2b charcoal 10350+220 Beta-26250 García et al. 1999
Agua de la Cueva 2b charcoal 10950+90
(Standard)
Beta-61409 García et al. 1999
Arroyo Feo Great Cave11 base
(Toldense)
charcoal 9330+80 CSIC-396 Orquera 1987
(Gradin et al. 1981)
Arroyo Feo Great Cave11
(Toldense)
charcoal 9410+70 CSIC-514 Orquera 1987
(Alonso et al. 1986)
Arroyo Seco 2lower bone 5250+110† Beta-11251 Nami 1996 (Politis 1988)
Arroyo Seco 2lower bone 6450+60†   Nami 1996 (Politis 1988)
Arroyo Seco 2lower bone 7000+80 TO-1503 Nami 1996 (Politis 1988)
Arroyo Seco 2lower bone (Megatherium americanum) 7320+50
(AMS)
TO-1506 Nami 1996 (Politis 1988)
Arroyo Seco 2lower bone (Megatherium americanum) 8390+240 LP-53 Nami 1996 (Politis 1988); Politis et al. 1987
Arroyo Seco 2lower bone (human bone) 8560+320 LP-55 Nami 1996 (Politis 1988); Politis et al. 1987
Arroyo Seco 2lower bone (Equus (Amerhippus) neogeus) 8890+90
(AMS)
TO-1504 Nami 1996 (Politis 1988)
Arroyo Seco 2lower bone 8980+100 TO-1505 Nami 1996 (Politis 1988)
Arroyo Seco 2  bone (Glossotherium robustum) 10500+90
(AMS)
AA-9049 Borrero et al. 1998 (Politis et al. 1995)
Arroyo Seco 2  bone (Equus (Amerhippus) neogeus) 11250+105
(AMS)
AA-7964 Borrero et al. 1998 (Politis et al. 1995)
Arroyo Seco 2  bone (Toxodon platensis) 11590+90
(AMS)
AA-7965 Borrero et al. 1998 (Politis et al. 1995)
Cerro El Sombrero A1    8060+140 AA-5221 Flegenheimer and Zárate 1997
Cerro El Sombrero A1    10270+85 AA-4766 Flegenheimer and Zárate 1997
Cerro El Sombrero A1    10480+70 AA-5220 Flegenheimer and Zárate 1997
Cerro El Sombrero A1    10675+110 AA-4767 Flegenheimer and Zárate 1997
Cerro El Sombrero A1    10725+90 AA-4765 Flegenheimer and Zárate 1997
Cerro La China 1     10525+75 AA-8954 Flegenheimer and Zárate 1997
Cerro La China 1     10745+75 AA-8952 Flegenheimer and Zárate 1997
Cerro La China 1     10804+75 AA-8953 Flegenheimer and Zárate 1997
Cerro La China 1 Fell 1 (L2) charcoal 10730+150 I-12741 Flegenheimer 1987
Cerro La China 1 Fell 1 charcoal 10790+120
(AMS)
AA-1327 Flegenheimer 1987
Cerro La China 2     10560+75 AA-8956 Flegenheimer and Zárate 1997
Cerro La China 2     11150+135 AA-8955 Flegenheimer and Zárate 1997
Cerro La China 3 Fell 1 (Unit B) charcoal 10610+180 AA-1328 Nami 1996 (Flegenheimer 1987)
Cueva del Medio Fell 1 charcoal 9595+115
(Standard)
PITT-0244 Nami 1987
Cueva del Medio Fell 1 bone 9770+70
(Standard)
Beta-40281 Nami 1996 (Nami 1987)
Cueva del Medio Fell 1 charcoal 10310+70
(Standard)
Gr-N 14913 Nami 1996 (Nami and Menegaz 1991)
Cueva del Medio Fell 1 burned bone 10350+130‡
(Standard)
Beta-58105 Borrero et al. 1998 (Nami and Nakamura 1995)
Cueva del Medio Fell 1 charcoal 10430+80
(Standard)
Beta-52522 Nami 1996 (Nami 1992)
Cueva del Medio Fell 1 bone (Lama cf. owenii) 10430+100‡
(AMS)
NUTA-1734 Borrero et al. 1998 (Nami and Nakamura 1995)
Cueva del Medio Fell 3 bone (Lama guanicoe) 10450+100
(AMS)
NUTA-1735 Borrero et al. 1998 (Nami and Nakamura 1995)
Cueva del Medio Fell 1 burned bone 10550+120‡
(Standard)
Gr-N 14911 Nami 1987
Cueva del Medio Fell 1 bone (Hippidion saldiasi) 10710+100
(AMS)
NUTA-1811 Borrero et al. 1998 (Nami and Nakamura 1995)
Cueva del Medio Fell 3 bone (Lama guanicoe) 10710+190
(AMS)
NUTA-2332 Borrero et al. 1998 (Nami and Nakamura 1995)
Cueva del Medio Fell 3 bone (Lama guanicoe) 10850+130
(AMS)
NUTA-1812 Borrero et al. 1998 (Nami and Nakamura 1995)
Cueva del Medio Fell 1 bone (Hippidion saldiasi) 10860+160‡
(AMS)
Borrero et al. 1998 (Nami and Nakamura 1995)
Cueva del Medio Fell 1 bone (Lama cf. owenii) 10960+150
(AMS)
NUTA-2330 Borrero et al. 1998 (Nami and Nakamura 1995)
Cueva del Medio Fell 1 charcoal 10930+230
(Standard)
Beta-39081 Nami 1996 (Nami and Menegaz 1991)
Cueva del Medio Fell 1 bone (Lama cf. owenii) 11120+130
(AMS)
NUTA-1737 Borrero et al. 1998 (Nami and Nakamura 1995)
Cueva del Medio Fell 1 bone (Lama cf. owenii) 11040+250‡
(AMS)
NUTA-2197 Borrero et al. 1998 (Nami and Nakamura 1995)
Cueva del Medio Fell 1 burned bone 12290+180‡
(Standard)
PITT-0343 Nami 1987
Cueva del Medio not cultural bone (Mylodon) 12720+300
(AMS)
NUTA-2341 Borrero et al. 1998 (Nami and Nakamura 1995)
Cueva Epullán Grande lower charcoal 9970+100 LP-213 Nami 1996 (S. de Bórmida 1992)
Cueva Tixi late Pleistocene charcoal? 10045+95 AA-12131 Mazzanti 1996
Cueva Tixi late Pleistocene charcoal? 10375+90 AA-12130 Mazzanti 1996
Cuevo de las Manos 6 base (Toldense) charcoal 9300+90 CSIC-385 Orquera 1987 (Aguerre 1978)
Cuevo de las Manos 6 middle (Toldense) charcoal-wood 9320+90 CSIC-138 Orquera 1987 (Gradin et al. 1976)
Cuevo Lago Sofía Fell 1 charcoal 11570+60 PITT-0684 Nami 1996 (Prieto 1991)
Cuevo Lago Sofía Fell 1 charcoal 12990+241 PITT-0939 Nami 1996 (Prieto 1991)
Cuyín Manzano VII charcoal 9920+85 Kn-1432 Orquera 1987 (Ceballos 1982)
El Ceibo lower charcoal 12600+600 FRA-98 Nami 1996 (Cardich 1987)
Fell's Cave end II/start III unknown 8480+135 I-5143 Nami 1987 (Bird 1983, 1988)
Fell's Cave   unknown 9100+150 I-5144 Orquera 1987 (Bird 1988)
Fell's Cave II unknown 9030+230 I-5145 Orquera 1987 (Bird 1988)
Fell's Cave I/II unknown 10080+160 I-5146 Orquera 1987 (Bird 1988)
Fell's Cave I charcoal 10720+300 W-915 Orquera 1987 (Bird 1969, 1970, 1988)
Fell's Cave I unknown 11000+170 I-3988 Orquera 1987 (Bird 1969, 1970, 1988)
Inca Cueva 4 lower charcoal 9230+70 CSIC-498 Nami 1996 (Aschero 1988)
Inca Cueva 4 lower charcoal 9650+110 LP-102 Nami 1996 (Aschero 1988)
Inca Cueva 4 lower charcoal 9900+200 AC-564 Nami 1996 (Aschero 1988)
Inca Cueva 4 lower charcoal 10620+140 LP-137 Nami 1996 (Aschero 1988)
La Moderna lower bone (Doedicurus clavicaudatus) 6550+160**
(Standard)
Beta-7824 Nami 1996 (Politis and Beukens 1991)
La Moderna   bone (Doedicurus clavicaudatus) 7010+100
(AMS)
TO-1507-1 Borrero et al. 1998 (Politis et al. 1995)
La Moderna   bone (Doedicurus clavicaudatus) 7460+80
(AMS)
TO-2610 Borrero et al. 1998 (Politis et al. 1995)
La Moderna   bone (Doedicurus clavicaudatus) 7510+370
(AMS)
TO-1507-2 Borrero et al. 1998 (Politis et al. 1995)
La Moderna lower bone (Doedicurus clavicaudatus) 12330+370
(AMS)
TO-1507 Nami 1996 (Politis and Beukens 1991)
Los Toldos 3 top of Level 9 charcoal 8755+480 FRA-97 Cardich et al. 1987, Cardich 1978
Los Toldos 3 Level 11b charcoal 12600+600 FRA-96 or 98? Cardich et al. 1987, Cardich 1978
Marazzi rockshelter inf. charcoal 9590+210 Gif-1023 Orquera 1987 (Laming-Emperaire 1968)
Palli Aike cave Bird I   8639+450 C-485 Nami 1987 (Bird 1951)
Paso Otero 5 Pleist/ Holocene boundary bone (megamammal) 10190+120 AA-19291 Martinez 1997
Piedra Museo Stratum 4 and 5 charcoal 10400+80
(AMS)
AA-8428 Nami 1996 (Miotti 1991)
Piedra Museo Stratum 6 charcoal 12890+90
(AMS)
AA-20125 Miotti and Cattaneo 1997
Traful 1 Cave 13 charcoal 9285+313 LP-62 Orquera 1987 (Curzio et al. 1980)
Tres Arroyos Fell 1 charcoal 10280+110 DIC-2732 Nami 1996 (Massone 1987)
Tres Arroyos Fell 1 charcoal 10420+100 DIC-2333 (2733?) Nami 1996 (Massone 1987)
Tres Arroyos Fell 1 charcoal 11880+250 Beta-20219 Nami 1996 (Massone 1987)
† taken from the same quadrant and very close to the rib bone dated at the Toronto Laboratory (Nami 1996)
** questioned by Politis and Beukens (1991) (Nami 1996)
‡ from the same hearth (Borrero et al. 1998)

Appendix 2:
Radiocarbon dates from two Mylodon dens in Argentina and Chile
Site Level Material dated C-14 date Lab # Reference
Gruta del Indio hearth above dung charcoal 8045+55 GrN-5394 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio upper dung 8990+90 LP 925 Garcia and Lagiglia 1999
Gruta del Indio   Mylodon dermal ossicles 9560+90 GrN-5772 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio Level 7 dung 9650+800 A-1282 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio lowest charcoal charcoal 9740+280 A-1637 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio 1.5-2.0 cm above dung charcoal 9770+85 A-9491 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio firepit #3 charcoal 9825+95/-90 A-9492 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio top hearth zone charcoal 9890+75 A-9495 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio just above dung charcoal 9905+140 A-9489 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio between top/ middle hearth charcoal 9990+75 A-9496 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio near firepit #2 charcoal 10135+95 A-9468 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio lowest hearth zone charcoal 10170+70 A-9498 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio middle hearth zone charcoal 10195+80 A-9497 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio highest dung dung 10200+300 A-1636 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio top of dung dung 10285+240/-230 A-9494 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio hearth #1 charcoal 10440+225/-220 A-9487 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio 2.68 m charcoal 10530+140 A-1638 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio Level 7 dung 10610+210 A-1351 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio top of dung dung 10900+185 A-9493 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio 2.2 m charcoal 10930+540 A-1373 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio 1.1 m dung 10950+60 GrN-5558 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio top of dung dung 11040+130 A-9570 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio Level 8 dung 11820+180 A-1371 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio 60 cm dung 12375+115 A-9571 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio 0-10 cm dung 13750+400 A-1390 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio middle portion dung 24140+510 LP 1075 Garcia and Lagiglia 1999
Gruta del Indio 70-80 cm dung 24730+860 A-1370 Long et al. 1998
Gruta del Indio middle portion dung 28670+720 LP 1072 Garcia and Lagiglia 1999
Gruta del Indio near base dung 30200+800 LP 929 Garcia and Lagiglia 1999
Gruta del Indio near base dung 30800+700 LP 918 Garcia and Lagiglia 1999
Gruta del Indio 1.0-1.1 m wood -32000 A-1372 Garcia and Lagiglia 1999
Mylodon Cave dung layer? sloth dung 10200+400 Sa-49 Mengoni Goñalons 1986; Rivera 1978
Mylodon Cave dung layer? sloth hide 10400+330 A-1391 Mengoni Goñalons 1986; Long and Martin 1974
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 10575+400 GX-6248 Markgraf 1985
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 10800+570* C-484 Mengoni Goñalons 1986; Bird 1952
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 10864+720* C-484 Mengoni Goñalons 1986; Bird 1952
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 10880+300 GX-6243 Markgraf 1985
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 11775+480 GX-6246 Markgraf 1985
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 11810+299 BM-1210 Markgraf 1985; Saxon 1979
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 11905+335 GX-6247 Markgraf 1985
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 12240+150 A-2447 Markgraf 1985
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 12270+350 A-2445 Markgraf 1985
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 12285+480 GX-6245 Markgraf 1985
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 12308+288 BM-1210B Markgraf 1985; Saxon 1979
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 12496+148 BM-1209 Markgraf 1985; Saxon 1979
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 12552+128 BM-1375 Markgraf 1985; Saxon 1979
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 12870+100 A-2448 Markgraf 1985
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth bone 12984+76 BM-728 Mengoni Goñalons 1986; Burleigh et al. 1977
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth bone 13183+202 BM-1208 Mengoni Goñalons 1986
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth bone 13260+115 LU-794 Mengoni Goñalons 1986; Hakansson
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 13470+180 A-2446 Markgraf 1985
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth hide and hair 13500+470 NZ-1680 (R-4299) Mengoni Goñalons 1986; Rivera 1978
Mylodon Cave sloth layer? sloth dung 13560+180 A-1390 Mengoni Goñalons 1986; Long and Martin 1974
* sample tested twice by the Chicago lab, then averaged (Libby half-life)

Appendix 3:
Metric data of Fell's Cave stemmed projectile points (Politis 1991)
Site Cat # Max. length Max. width Max. thickness Min. stem width Max. base width
Fell's Cave41.1 1979a 68 34.5 5.5 17.5 18
Fell's Cave 41.1 1979b 57 30 7.3 16 17.5
Fell's Cave 41.1 1979c 54 24 5 12 13
Fell's Cave 41.1 1979d 47 26 4.5 14 15
Fell's Cave 41.1 1979e 42 30 5.3 17 17
Fell's Cave 41.1 1979f 36 20.5 5.3 12.5 14.5
Fell's Cave 41.2 8303 50 31 8 17.3 19
Cueva del Medio 1 40.4 17.5 8 11 13
Cueva del Medio 2 48 27 6 19 20.5
Cerro la China 88 41 22 6 13 15
Cerro la China 455 42 23 6 13 14
San Cayetano   38.5 23 6 16 18
Lobos   51.5 28 5 13 16.5
Sauce Chico   48 27 7 17.5 19
Uruguay   -- 38.5 7.6 18.5 19.5
Uruguay 1 71.5 42 5.5 23.5 26
Uruguay 4 55 22 5 14 14.5
Uruguay 8 53.5 30 6.5 19 21
Uruguay 16 62 31 6 17 21
Uruguay 17 63 27 5.5 17 --
Uruguay 19 68 24 7 15 20
Uruguay-- Alegre 1 46 25 4 13 14
Uruguay-- Alegre 2 35 21 5 14 17
Rio Grande do Sul 37 46 22 7 12.5 15


References and Suggested Readings

Aguirre, M.L.
1993 Palaeobiogeography of the Holocene molluscan fauna from northeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina: its relation to coastal evolution and sea level changes. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 102:1-26.
 
Ameghino, F.
1879  L'homme préhistorique dans La Plata. Revue d'Anthropologie 2:210-249.
1880  La antigüedad del hombre en La Plata. 2 vols. Privately published, Paris.
 
Belardi, J.B. and J.G. Otero
1998 Anatomia economica del huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus): una contribución a la interpretación de als evidencias arqueológicas de su aprovechamiento en Patagonia. Ans. Inst. Pat., Ser. Cs. Hs. 26:195-207.
 
Bird, J.B.
1938 Antiquity and migrations of the early inhabitants of Patagonia. The Geographical Review 28(2):250-275.
1970 Paleo-Indian discoidal stones from Southern South America. American Antiquity 35(2):205-209.
1988 Travels and archaeology in South Chile. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.
 
Borrero, L.A.
1980 La relacion entre los primeros cazadores Americanos y la fauna Pleistocenica: consideraciones demograficas. Actas III de Congreso Argentino de Paleontología y Biostratigrafía y I Congreso Latinoamericano de Paleontología 3:211- 221.
1984 Pleistocene extinctions in South America. Quaternary of South America and Antarctic Peninsula, Volume 2:115-125. A.A. Blakema, Rotterdam.
1985 Taphonomic observations on guanaco skeletons. Current Research in the Pleistocene 2:65-66.
1986 Cazadores de Mylodon en la Patagonia Austral. In New evidence for the Pleistocene peopling of the Americas, edited by A.L. Bryan, pp. 281-294. Center for the Study of Early Man, Orono, Maine.
1988 Guanaco indexes: their implications for the study of other ungulates. Current Research in the Pleistocene 5:63-64.
1990 Fuego-Patagonian bone assemblages and the problem of communal guanaco hunting. In Hunters of the Recent Past, edited by L.B. Davis and B.O.K. Reeves, pp. 373-399. Unwin Hyman, London.
1995 The archaeology of the far south of America-- Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. In Ancient Peoples and Landscapes, edited by E. Johnson, pp. 207-215. Museum of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas.
1996 The Pleistocene-Holocene transition in Southern South America. In Humans at the end of the last Ice Age: the archaeology of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, edited by L.G. Straus, B.V. Eriksen, J.M. Erlandson, and D.R. Yesner, pp. 339-354. Plenum Press, New York.
 
Borrero, L.A., M. Casiraghi, and H.D. Yacobaccio
1985 First guanaco-processing site in southern South America. Current Anthropology 26(2):273-276.
 
Borrero, L.A. and N.V. Franco
1997 Early Patagonian hunter- gatherers: subsistence and technology. Journal of Anthropological Research 53:219-239.
 
Borrero, L.A., and C. McEwan
1997 The peopling of Patagonia: the first human occupation. In Patagonia: natural history, prehistory and ethnography at the uttermost end of the Earth, edited by McEwan et al., pp. 32-45. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
 
Borrero, L.A., M. Zárate, L. Miotti, and M. Massone
1998 The Pleistocene-Holocene transition and human occupations in the Southern Cone of South America. Quaternary International 49/50:191-199.
 
Box, E.O.
1986 Some climatic relationships of the vegetation of Argentina, in global perspective. In Contributions to the knowledge of flora and vegetation of northern Argentina, edited by U. Eskuche and E. Landolt, pp. 181-216. Veroffentlichugen des Geobotanischen Institutes der ETH, Stiftung Rubel, Zurich, 91. Heft.
 
Bryan, A.L.
1983 South America. In Early Man in the New World, edited by R. Shutler, Jr., pp. 137-146. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills.
 
Cardich, A.
1978 Recent excavations at Lauricocha (Central Andes) and Los Toldos (Patagonia). In Early man in America from a Circum-Pacific perspective, edited by A.L. Bryan, pp. 296-300. Occasional Papers No. 1, Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta. Archaeological Researches International, Edmonton.
 
Cardich, A.R., L.L. Miotti, and A.S. Castro
1987 Paleoindians in the Patagonian region: Los Toldos archaeological locality, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Current Research in the Pleistocene 4:145-147.
 
Caviglia, S.E., H.D. Yacobaccio, and L.A. Borrero
1986 Las Buitreras: convivencia del hombre con fauna extinta en Patagonia Meridional. In New evidence for the Pleistocene peopling of the Americas, edited by A.L. Bryan, pp. 295-317. Center for the Study of Early Man, Orono, Maine.
 
Clapperton, C.
1993 Quaternary geology and geomorphology of South America. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam.
 
Coronato, A., M. Salemme, and J. Rabassa
1999 Palaeoenvironmental conditions during the early peopling of Southernmost South America (Late Glacial-Early Holocene, 14-9 ka B.P.). Quaternary International 53/54:77-92.
 
D'Antoni, H.L.
1983 Pollen analysis of Gruta del Indio. Quaternary of South America and Antarctic Peninsula, Volume 1:83-104. A.A. Blakema, Rotterdam.
 
Dillehay, T.D. and M.B. Collins
1991 Monte Verde, Chile: a comment on Lynch. American Antiquity 56(2):333-341.
 
Dillehay, T.D., G.A. Calderón, G. Politis, and M Beltrão
1992 Earliest hunters and gatherers of South America. Journal of World Prehistory 6(2):145-204.
 
Fidalgo, F., L.M. Meo Guzmán, G.G. Politis, M.C. Salemme, and E.P. Tonni
1986 Investigaciones arqueológicas en el Sitio 2 de Arroyo Seco. In New evidence for the Pleistocene peopling of the Americas, edited by A.L. Bryan, pp. 221-269. Center for the Study of Early Man, Orono, Maine.
 
Fiedel, S.J.
1999 Artifact provenience at Monte Verde: confusion and contradictions. In "Monte Verde revisited", pp. 1-12. Scientific American Discovering Archaeology 1(6).
 
Figuerero Torres, M.J.
1986 Biological and archaeological information in coprolites from an early site in Patagonia. Current Research in the Pleistocene 3:74- 75.
 
Flegenheimer, N.
1986-
87 
Excavaciones en el Sitio 3 de la Localidad Cerro la China (Provincia de Buenos Aires). Relaciones de la Sociedad de Antropología 17(1):7-28.
1987 Recent research at localities Cerro La China and Cerro El Sombrero, Argentina. Current Research in the Pleistocene 4:148-149.
1991 Bifacialidad y piedra con picado, abrasion y pulido en sitios Palpeanos tempranos. Shincal 3:64-78.
1995 The hilltop of Cerro el Sombrero, Argentina, revisited. Current Research in the Pleistocene 12:11-13.
 
Flegenheimer, N. and C. Bayón
1996 Surface Fell's Cave stemmed points in the Argentine Pampas. Current Research in the Pleistocene 13:17-19.
 
Flegenheimer, N. and M. Zárate
1989 Paleoindian occupation at Cerro el Sombrero Locality, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Current Research in the Pleistocene 6:13-14.
1997 Considerations on radiocarbon and calibrated dates from Cerro la China and Cerro el Sombrero, Argentina. Current Research in the Pleistocene 14:27-28.
 
García, E.A.
1992 Early occupations at Agua de la Cueva-Sector Sur, Province of Mendoza, Argentina. Current Research in the Pleistocene 9:13-14.
1995 Agua de la Cueva rockshelter and its relationship to the early peopling of central west Argentina. Current Research in the Pleistocene 12:13-14.
 
García, A. and H.A. Lagiglia
1999 A 30,000-year-old megafauna dung layer from Gruta del Indio (Mendoza, Argentina). Current Research in the Pleistocene 16:116-118.
 
García, A., M. Zárate, and M.M. Paez
1999 The Pleistocene/Holocene transition and human occupation in the Central Andes of Argentina: Agua de la Cueva locality. Quaternary International 53/54:43-52.
 
Gil, A., G. Neme, and A. García
1997 Preliminary zooarchaeological results at Agua de la Cueva-Sector Sur Shelter. Current Research in the Pleistocene 14:139-140.
 
Gruhn, R. and A.L. Bryan
1991 A review of Lynch's descriptions of South American Pleistocene sites. American Antiquity 56(2):342-348.
 
Hrdlicka, A.
1912 Early man in South America. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 52. Smithsonian Institution, Washington.
 
Iriondo, M.H. and N.O. Garcia
1993 Climatic variations in the Argentine plains during the last 18,000 years. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 101:209-220.
 
Isla, F.I., L.C. Cortizo, E.J. Schnack
1996 Pleistocene and Holocene beaches and estuaries along the southern barrier of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Quaternary Science Reviews 15:833-841.
 
Isla, F.I. and M.A. Espinosa
1995 Coastal environmental changes associated with Holocene sea-level fluctutation: Southeastern Buenos Aires, Argentina. Quaternary International 26:55-60.
 
Jackson, L.J.
1995 A Clovis point from south coastal Chile. Current Research in the Pleistocene 12:21-23.
 
Johnson, E., M. Gutierrez, G. Politis, G. Martinez, and W.T. Hartwell
1997 Holocene taphonomy at Paso Otero 1 on the Eastern Pampas of Argentina. In Proceedings of the 1993 bone modification conference, Hot Springs, South Dakota, edited by L.A. Hannus, L. Rossum, and R.P. Winham, pp. 105-121. Occasional Publication No. 1, Archeology Laboratory, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.
 
Lanata, J.L.
1990 Humans and terrestrial and sea mammals at Península Mitre, Tierra del Fuego. In Hunters of the Recent Past, edited by L.B. Davis and B.O.K. Reeves, pp. 400-406. Unwin Hyman, London.
 
Long, A. and P.S. Martin
1974 Death of American ground sloths. Science 186:638-640.
 
Long, A., P.S. Martin, and H.A. Lagiglia
1998 Ground sloth extinction and human occupation at Gruta del Indio, Argentina. Radiocarbon 40(2):693-700.
 
Lumbreras, L.G. (translated by B.J. Meggers)
1974 The peoples and cultures of ancient Peru. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.
 
Lynch, T.F.
1990 Glacial-age man in South America? A critical review. American Antiquity 55(1):12-36.
1991a Lack of evidence for glacial-age settlement of South America: reply to Dillehay and Collins and to Gruhn and Bryan. American Antiquity 56(2):348-355.
1991b Paleoindians in South America: a discrete and identifiable cultural stage? In Clovis: origins and adaptations, edited by R. Bonnichsen and K.L. Turnmire, pp. 255-259. Center for the Study of the First Americans, Corvallis.
 
Markgraf, V.
1985 Late Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Southern Patagonia. Science 228:1110-1112.
1987 Paleoclimates of the Southern Argentine Andes. Current Research in the Pleistocene 4:150-157.
 
Martínez, G.A.
1997 A preliminary report on Paso Otero 5, a Late-Pleistocene site in the Pampean region of Argentina. Current Research in the Pleistocene 14:53-55.
 
Mayer-Oakes, W.J.
1996 South American Paleo-Indian projectile points. Lithic Technology 21(2):134-148.
 
Mazzanti, D.L.
1996 An archaeological sequence of hunter-gatherers in the Tandilia range: Cueva Tixi, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Antiquity 70:450-452.
1997 Excavaciones arqueologicas en el sitio Cueva Tixi, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Latin American Antiquity 8(1):55-62.
 
McCulloch, R.D., C.M. Clapperton, J. Rabassa, and A.P. Currant
1997 The natural setting: the glacial and post-glacial environmental history of Fuego-Patagonia. In Patagonia: natural history, prehistory and ethnography at the uttermost end of the Earth, edited by McEwan et al., pp. 12-31. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
 
McEwan, C., L.A. Borrero, and A. Prieto
1997 Patagonia: natural history, prehistory and ethnography at the uttermost end of the Earth. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
 
Meltzer, D.J., J.A. Adovasio, and T.D. Dillehay
1994 On a Pleistocene human occupation at Pedra Furada, Brazil. Antiquity 68:695-714.
 
Mena, F.
1997 Middle to late Holocene adaptations in Patagonia. In Patagonia: natural history, prehistory and ethnography at the uttermost end of the Earth, edited by McEwan et al., pp. 46-59. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
 
Menegaz, A.N. and H.G. Nami
1994 Late Pleistocene faunal diversity in Ultima Esperanza (Chile): further data from Cueva Del Medio. Current Research in the Pleistocene 93-95.
 
Mengoni Goñalons, G.L.
1986 Patagonian prehistory: early exploitation of faunal resources (13,500-8500 B.P.). In New evidence for the Pleistocene peopling of the Americas, edited by A.L. Bryan, pp. 271-279. Center for the Study of Early Man, Orono, Maine.
 
Miotti, L.
1992 Paleoindian occupation at Piedra Museo locality, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Current Research in the Pleistocene 9:30-32.
1995 Piedra Museo locality: a special place in the New World. Current Research in the Pleistocene 12:36-38.
 
Miotti, L. and R. Cattáneo
1997 Bifacial/unifacial technology c. 13,000 years ago in Southern Patagonia. Current Research in the Pleistocene 14:62-65.
 
Miotti, L. and M. Salemme
1999 Biodiversity, taxonomic richness and specialists-generalists during Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene times in Pampa and Patagonia (Argentina, Southern South America). Quaternary International 53/54:53-68.
 
Montané, J.
1968 Paleo-Indian remains from Laguna de Tagua Tagua, Central Chile. Science 161:1137-1168
 
Muñoz, A.S.
1999 Guanaco butchering by hunter-gatherers from northern Tierra del Fuego Island, Patagonia. Poster presented at the 64th SAA meetings, Chicago.
 
Nami, H.G.
1987 Cueva del Medio: a significant Paleoindian site in southern South America. Current Research in the Pleistocene 4:157-158.
1989 New dates for the Paleoindian socities of South America. Current Research in the Pleistocene 6:18-19.
1996 New assessments of early human occupations in the southern cone. In Prehistoric Mongloid dispersals, edited by T. Akazawa and E.J.E. Szathmáry, pp. 254-269. Oxford Univeristy Press, Oxford.
 
Nami, H.G. and A.M. Casé
1988 The raw material used by Paleoindians of the Cueva Del Medio, Ultima Esperanza, Chile. Current Research in the Pleistocene 5:31-32.
 
Nami, H.G. and V.G Scheinsohn
1997 Use-wear patterns on bone experimental flakers: a preliminary report. In Proceedings of the 1993 bone modification conference, Hot Springs, South Dakota, edited by L.A. Hannus, L. Rossum, and R.P. Winham, pp. 256-264. Occasional Publication No. 1, Archeology Laboratory, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.
 
Neves, W. and S. Cornero
1997 What did South American Paleoindians eat? Current Research in the Pleistocene 14:93-96.
 
Neves, W.A. and H.M. Pucciarelli
1991 Morphological affinities of the first Americans: an exploratory analysis based on early South American human remains. Journal of Human Evolution 21:261-273.
 
Ochsenius, C.
1985 Pleniglacial desertization, large-animal mass extinction and Pleistocene-Holocene boundary in South America. Revista de Geografía Norte Grande 12:35-47.
 
Orquera, L.A.
1987 Advances in the archaeology of the Pampa and Patagonia. Journal of World Prehistory 1(4):333-413.
 
Politis, G.G.
1991 Fishtail projectile points in the Southern Cone of South America: an overview. In Clovis: origins and adaptations, edited by R. Bonnichsen and K.L. Turnmire, pp. 287-301. Center for the Study of the First Americans, Corvallis.
 
Politis, G.G. and M.A. Gutiérrez
1998 Gliptodontes y cazadores-recolectores de la region Pampeana (Argentina). Latin American Antiquity 9(2):111-134.
 
Politis, G.G. and D.M. Olmo
1986 Preliminary analysis of the lithic collection of the La Moderna site, Argentina. Current Research in the Pleistocene 3:36-38.
 
Politis, G.G., J.L. Prado, and R.P. Beukens
1995 The human impact in Pleistocene-Holocene extinctions in South America. In Ancient Peoples and Landscapes, edited by E. Johnson, pp. 187-205. Museum of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas.
 
Politis, G.G., E.P. Tonni, F. Fidalgo, M.C. Salemme, and L.M. Meo Guzman
1987 Man and Pleistocene megamammals in the Argentine Pampa: Site 2 at Arroyo Seco. Current Research in the Pleistocene 4:159-161.
 
Politis, G.G. and M.C. Salemme
1990 Pre-Hispanic mammal exploitation and hunting strategies in the eastern Pampa subregion of Argentina. In Hunters of the Recent Past, edited by L.B. Davis and B.O.K. Reeves, pp. 352-372. Unwin Hyman, London.
 
Prado, J.L.
1996 La radiacíon adaptativa del caballo en América del Sur. Boletín del Centro 4:21-26.
 
Prieto, A.R.
1996 Late Quaternary vegetational and climatic changes in the Pampa grassland of Argentina. Quaternary Research 45:73-88.
 
Sanguineeti de Bórmida, A.C. and L.A. Borrero
1983 Las Buitreras Cave and the palaeoenvironments of the Río Gallegos valley, Province of Santa Cruz, Argentina. Quaternary of South America and Antarctic Peninsula, Volume 1:151-156. A.A. Blakema, Rotterdam.
 
Schäbitz, F.
1994 Holocene climatic variations in northern Patagonia, Argentina. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 109:287-294.
 
Scheinsohn, V.G.
1997 Use-wear patterns on bark removers. In Proceedings of the 1993 bone modification conference, Hot Springs, South Dakota, edited by L.A. Hannus, L. Rossum, and R.P. Winham, pp. 265-276. Occasional Publication No. 1, Archeology Laboratory, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.
 
Scheinsohn, V. and J.L. Ferretti
1997 Design and function of prehistoric tools of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) as related to the mechancal properties of bone materials utilized in their manufacture. In Proceedings of the 1993 bone modification conference, Hot Springs, South Dakota, edited by L.A. Hannus, L. Rossum, and R.P. Winham, pp. 65-75. Occasional Publication No. 1, Archeology Laboratory, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.
 
Scian, B. and M. Donnari
1997 Retrospective analysis of the Palmer drought severity index in the semi-arid Pampas region, Argentina. International Journal of Climatology 17:313-322.
 
Soto-Heim, P.
1994 Paleo-Indian human remains of Patagonia—Chile. Current Research in the Pleistocene 11:55-57.
 
Tonni, E.P. and A.L. Cione
1997 Did the Argentine Pampean ecosystem exist in the Pleistocene? Current Research in the Pleistocene 14:131-133.
 
Torres, M.J.F.
1986 Biological and archaeological information in coprolites from an early site in Patagonia. Current Research in the Pleistocene 3:74-75.
 
Turner, C.G.
1992 New World origins: new research from the Americas and the Soviet Union. In Ice Age Hunters of the Rockies, edited by D.J. Stanford and J.S. Day, pp. 7-50. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, Colorado.
 
Turner, C.G. and J. Bird
1981 Dentition of Chilean Paleo-Indians and peopling of the Americas. Science 212:1053-1055.
 
Viglizzo, E.F., Z.E. Roberto, M.C. Filippin, and A.J. Pordomingo
1995 Climate variability and agroecological change in the Central Pampas of Argentina. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 55:7-16.
 
Villagrán, C.
1988 Expansion of Magellanic moorland during the Late Pleistocene: palynological evidence from northern Isla de Chiloé, Chile. Quaternary Research 30:304-314.
 
Wilson, D.J.
1999 Indigenous South Americans of the past and present: an ecological perspective. Westview Press, Boulder.
 
Yu, P.L.
1998 ¿Solo cazando o todo recollectando? An examination of South American Paleoindian immigration and colonization. Paper presented at the 63rd SAA meetings, Seattle.
 
Zárate, M.
1986
-87 
Marco estratigrafico y geologico del Sitio 3 de la localidad arqueologica Cerro la China. Relaciones de la Sociedad de Antropología 17(1):29-35.
 
Zárate, M. and N. Flegenheimer
1991 Geoarchaeology of the Cerro La China Locality (Buenos Aires, Argentina): Site 2 and Site 3. Geoarchaeology 6(3):273-294.


Foot Notes

1 rcybp denotes "radiocarbon years before present"

2 According to my sources, mylodons were recovered from Piedra Museo in the Deseado Region, thus Miotti's data should be checked.


Return to:
   Opening/Abstract Page
   Paleoindian & Other Stuff